• Insulin is synthesized in the beta cells of Pancreatic Islets.
  • Under basal conditions about 1 Unit of Insulin is secreted per hour by human pancreas.
  • Much Larger quantity is secreted after every meal.
  • Secretion of Insulin by beta cells is regulated by chemical, hormonal and neural mechanisms.
  • A number of hormones like Growth Hormone, Corticosteroids, Thyroxine modify Insulin release in response to Glucose.
  • Glucagon stimulates release of Insulin.
  • Somatostatin inhibits release of Insulin.
  • IGF-1 inhibit release of Insulin.
  • Insulin controls the blood sugar by diverting it to Liver, Muscles and Adipocytes (Fat Cells).
  • Insulin Inhibits the release of Sugar from liver, Muscles and Adipocytes.
  • Insulin controls the blood lipids by diverting lipids to the adipocytes (fat cells), Muscles and Liver.
  • Insulin is anti-lipolytic hormone.
  • Insulin inhibits the breakdown of the proteins and hence prevents protein loss from the body.
  • Insulin is anti-proteolytic hormone.
  • Insulin has vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Deficiency of Insulin secretion/release causes Diabetes Mellitus type 1.
  • Resistance to Insulin action causes Diabetes Mellitus type 2.
  • There occurs profound metabolic disturbances including Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fat in Diabetes Mellitus.
  • Hyperinsulinemia is associated with Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and Metabolic Syndrome.
  • Hyperinsulinemia is associated with Acanthosis Nigricans, PCOD and Hirsutism.
  • Acute deficiency of Insulin may cause Diabetes Ketoacidosis.
  • Insulin Replacement therapy is the mainstay treatment for Diabetes Mellitus.

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